Saturday, September 3, 2011

pruning pear trees

Pruning pear tree (Pyrus communis)
Pear tree (Pyrus communis)
Scientific name: Pyrus communis L. (Pyrus domestica Medik.)
Origin: possible origins of Central - Asia Minor - Asia, Caucasus, ...
Family:order of Rosales, suborder RosineaeFamily: Rosaceaesubfamily: Pomoïdeae.
types: Berga Motte Esper, Beurre Alexandre Lucas Beurre d'Amanlis, Buerre Clairgeau, Beurre Diel, Contesse de Paris Conference, Dr. Lucius, Doyenne du Comice, Joan of Arc, Madame Favre, Petersbirne, Peroce the Trévoux, Princess Marianne, Winterlonchen ...
Flowering and pollination: pollination, usually by a different species are planted nearby. The species are dependent on the tree that you want to fertilize.
Fact: pears tend to deliver parthenocarpische fruiting. These are fruit-less embryos formed without fertilization.
pear blossom flowering period: between mid April - mid May
Mutations have led to better and bigger fruits.Second bloom in May end -> remove flowers, offer less risk of fire blight.
Tip: late developers generally have fewer problems with frost, which offers more chances of success for good fruit. (Or more likely to fire blight).
Harvest: Fruits ripen in August and September, depending on the species.Pick the Pears by them quietly to lift and separate them from the stem of the branches. Pears to never pull it down.
Pear take much longer than an apple tree before their first fruit. (Not until their fourth or sixth year in their place)
Trees can sometimes about 100 years old.
Method of planting: stock options are low, half-standard and tall.
---> Possibility espaliered forms.
Sometimes also called on southern facades of houses planted.
Rootstock breeding:
• the best breeding or grafting is best done by following types:
---> Beurre Hardy, Beurre d'Amanlis, Duchess Elsa, Joan of Arc, Le Brun, Comtesse de Paris, Doyenne du Comice.
• the weak to avoid vaccinations are:
---> Buerre Clairgeau, Docteur Jules Guyot, Doyenne d'Hiver, Durendeau ...
Tip: This may well inoculations or finishes may be made provided between the stem.
Strains resistant to frost layer should be, can in turn best be grafted onto a rootstock of the quince.
Diploid / triploid: diploid = each cell contains 2 copies of chromosomes in accordance with each other. Including 1 from the male plant and one of the female plant. These are best for fertilizer and other species' pollen suppliers ".
Triploid varieties are less suitable.
= triploid plants of these species have 3 set of chromosomes and are sterile species with low pollen, this inevitably leads to bad fruit.
So it's good to know what type of tree you have planted a good fertilization true.
Location: a sunny spot to partial shade is good for the pear tree.
Respect a north - south direction, which ensures maximum light for the crown. Sun provides a lot of good for less sugar and then fungal diseases.
Soil: medium heavy soils and because of the similarities with the apple, he also tolerate slightly acid soils. A neutral pH value and good drainage are paramount.
A compound organic fertilizer can be given.
Mulching: Can be done once a year to a reasonable distance from the trunk or.
The planting: and this can be done from October to March. Always take into account possible frost periods.
If you purchase 2 year old container trees, there are on the whole system a few branches. These are left to feel after the next winter.
Then in March, not "kopgroeiers" 50 cm pruning (rechtaf) against the highest implanted twig. Pruning in the entire shoot kopgroeiers road to a possible lower branch. Then shortened it to a 10 cm length zijtwijg.
---> Zijhout Bending down to 60 ° from central leader (central branch),
---> Steep twigs are implanted completely pruned away.
Distance: respect the spacing depending on the strain selection.
---> Keep this in account espaliered forms.
· Low strain: 1.5 m to 2 m spacing.
· Half tribe: ranges from 5 to 6 m spacing.
· Tall: ranging from 8 to 10 m spacing.
Pruning: is from December to March.
pay particular attention:
· Dead branches ---> prune.
° steep branches ---> prune or wedge with softwood
· Branches that cross ---> prune (barns v / d branches leading to wounds ---> disease).
° to the central leader converging branches to remove.
° downwards growing fruiting wood ---> Delete ---> receives no sun!
· Pruning always with one eye facing out (crown) and the air and light to the chance in the crown.
How do we proceed to build fruiting wood?
---> Just the first year twigs leave year, then next year the mixed buttons trim and remove the one-year end.
After three years the fruit we cut wood to a "stump", after which the next year will provide many smaller fruits. (More later).
Further, your third year to prune back of the head.
Try as many flowers and fruit or to remove and set it up to a maximum of 1 or 2 pears per cluster.
Been pruned branches can be used (if the tree is at rest), to return to graft them in places you'd like. These branches are then in a refrigerator in a wet cloth in a plastic wrapped against evaporation. The placement of the graft happens when the sap is running full back. This to the graft as much as possible the chance to save well.
Tip: you can make hot or cold grafting wax to seal the wounds, but with perfect pruning wound healing periods occurred naturally.
Grafting wax covers, but fungi can also be well below comfortable with the necessary consequences.
Diseases: perenbladpopziekte (is formed by the perenbladgalmijt (Phytoptus pyri - Epitrimerus pyri). ---> Spraying is necessary.
fire blightfire blight

Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora): bacterial rot disease in consequence of the flowers and stems. Disease is established by bumblebees that the disease transferring the white hawthorn.
Bacteria Cancer: Mortality of leaf and flower shoots due to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria.
Zwartrot: Fungus "Stemphylium vesicarium" focuses on leaves and fruit, these are black and rotting.
Note: Fungal infections spread by spores, including the fallen leaves! This we can not improve the compost process!
Interesting facts: Pickets for tying up the pear tree are first before we put the tree in the hole locations. Best neoprene or rubber is used to attach the tree to the pole. Left work around the tree and pole barns to avoid during gusts. This leads to other injuries that occur can cause infections.See also the graft a good 15 cm above the ground, as these infections and other causes sprawl.

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