Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Fruit trees in medium and large gardens: planting of walnut trees

Overview walnuts tips:

Walnuts / walnuts fit well in medium and large gardens. Choose a healthy, vaccinated and walnotenras plant in a moist soil, you can pick up notes after three years already. Walnut Seedlings are very large, are fertile late (after 10 years) and are sometimes prone to nasty fungal diseases. Limited pruning best done in September and not in the winter. Walnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat, source of vitamin B, vitamin E and folic acid. Recommended varieties include walnut Juglans regia 'Axel', 'Broadview', 'Buccaneer', Coenen, Drjanovski, Hansen, Nr. 16, Plovdivski, Proslavski, R

Walnuts botany and useful features:- Ordinary walnuts (walnuts), whose scientific name Juglans regia, belong to the family Juglandaceae. In Esperanto, the juglandoThe genus name Juglans comes from Jovis composition-gloss, head of Jupiter (Zeus), dedicated to Zeus tree after a wedding when the bride entered the bedroom, threw the ancient Greeks nuts among the guests, that Zeus would make marriage fruitful .The species designation means regia royal and is derived from the Latin rex (= king).- Note boots fit very well in our environment. Flies and mosquitoes are in the vicinity of the tree banned. (Very useful in the stables of animals!) They give lots of shade, and are well suited to sit in when the temperatures in summer high. Aphids are rare on the tree.- Regarding health, it is usually easy fruit trees. Most new walnut varieties are little or not susceptible to disease.Older varieties may be susceptible to fire blight and fire spotty nature (leaf spot). Insects / mites need not be sprayed.Normally they require no plant protection products (pesticides).- Walnuts usually fit in small gardens. They should be planted wide apart. An exception is the weak-growing resume. "Hansen".- Nuts fit well in our current diet. In autumn you can collect the nuts, to dry off and eat. They are particularly rich in proteins and are therefore very useful for people who do not wish to eat meat (vegetarians).Nuts are a healthy treat most people, which they use for several months. Juglans regia: walnut, walnut
- Among the Walnuts, there are several plants which are not able / want to grow. The roots of Juglans could contain toxic substances, the growth of other plants can disturb. In which the leaves are not toxic, so they certainly take on the compost heap can be done.Tips in the planting of nut trees - walnuts common / walnut.- The recommended planting distance is 7.5 (6) x 8 m (or 9 x 10 m). This distance is dependent on the soil and of the race. Seedlings usually charge a very large distance.
- In general, grafted varieties strongly recommended. These may already after 3 years the first notes indicate. Seedlings show sometimes after 10-12 years the first notes. Inoculated with races you can be sure of their properties (disease susceptibility, fruit quality, scale, quality, nut width, ...). With seedlings this is a big question mark because the typical racial characteristics often lost.
- Preferably one species / cultivars that take very little disease prone. For older breeds nuts sometimes there are problems with bacterial fire, fire and patchy nature of the quality scale. Bacteria in a fire, the contents of the notes completely rotten.
- A tree pole is necessary for the grafted walnut trees. (2.5 m long and 6 cm thick)
- Preferably one plant in the fall (October-November) or spring (March-April)
- No plant nut trees on wet or dry soil. The best rooting depth is 1 meter. The pH (acidity) of the soil is best between 6.5 to 7
- Cross-pollination is usually recommended. So your best to plant two different nut trees which bloom right. A very good (self) pollinator is 'Buccaneer'. "Broadview" alone sometimes gives good results.If you really want only one nut tree / plant is then the races 'Amphyon', 'Buccaneer' and 'Chiara' the best solution. Both varieties are self-pollinating.
- Nuts are a loose, weed-free and warm soil. The graft will be best to just above ground plants. Also stemmed notes (grafted) always have a support post required!
- In low-lying land which are sensitive to late spring frost (frost pockets), there is some chance that the young shoots and flowers afvriezen. Preferably, they are not nuts / walnuts plants. If you still want to do that than to go down ahead late varieties in the spring. vb. "Drjanovski ',' Hansen 'and' Red Donaunuss.
- No fertilizer in plantput do. This can root combustion.
- Walnut Trees in pots usually regrow better than bare root plants.

Pruning nut trees / walnuts
- The best pruning time is between May, June and September. It can also happen just after the walnut harvest. See also "Fruit pruning calendar".
For walnut trees in the Netherlands suggest some pruning of specialists only in June to cut, so the bleeding (profuse loss of juice) is avoided.

- Pruning Tips: Little or no pruning. The stem length is minimal and better 1m30 1.80 to 2 meters. Only broken branches and twigs to remove abrasive.

Fungal diseases in regular walnuts (walnuts)
Brown-black spots on the leaves of walnut trees
Leaf and fruit diseases of walnut stain / walnuts may include two causes:
1) Fire Bacteria - Bacterial blight:
Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis (Pierce) Dye
Pseudomonas (Xanthomonas) juglandis.
The leaves of walnut / walnut are small brown spots, leaf fall in serious damage. On their hulls wet black rotten spots occur. In early summer infection by the bacteria penetrate the shell so that the nut rot and fresh glue (= wet rot).

A too large donation nutrients could cause more Xantomonas in some breeds. (Better a little more poor soil)
Chemical control: copper oxychloride (50 g per 10 liters of water). Shortly before flowering and at the appearance of the young nuts. In the spring, so 2 - to 3-fold spraying.

Insensitive / tolerant varieties are nuts, 'Broadview', ....
Sensitive species notes: "Axel", "Belnoot" and several other older varieties.

In young walnut trees that grow strongly, the shoots may be affected. One sees then brown, sunken spots with some slime growth, surrounded by an oily edge. If this occurs on or koptak gesteltak, it can be better to delete and start a new branch. Warm and humid weather increases the chance of an attack. This disease may also be transmitted by pollen.

2) Brandvlekkerigheid/ bladvlekkenziekte of Antharacnose bij Juglans
- Gnomonia leptostyla (con. v. Marssonia juglandis).
Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.:Fr.) Ces. & De Not. (anamorph: Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus)
Zowel op de bladbovenzijde als op de onderzijde vrij grote hoekige vlekken. Ziek notenblad vergeelt en valt af Juglans regia-gewone walnoot: bladvalziekte

Op de scheuten en bolsters ietwat ingezonken scherpbegrensde bruine vlekken. De noot zelf kan ook soms bruin worden en verdrogen (= droogrot). Nat lenteweer bevordert de infectie; deze gaat uit van zieke afgestorven bladeren die in de nabijheid van de bomen blijven liggen.

Bestrijding: Preventief bestrijding met koperoxychloride.
Koperoxychloride (50 gram per 10 liter water) in de voorzomer 2- tot 3-maal spuiten.
Let op! Gebruik geen koperhoudende producten waar schapen grazen!

Minder gevoelige/ tolerante notenrassen zijn: 'Broadview', ...
Gevoelige notenrassen: 'Axel' (= vuistnoot), ('Fey's Spezial'), 'Bel'
Infobronnen voor dit walnotenartikel:
- Groente & Fruit Encyclopedie .

Auteurs Luc Dedeene en Guy De Kinder. Uitgeverij Groenboekerij (Kosmos). Nur 423; formaat 21 x 29,7 cm; ruim 600 illustraties; omvang 408 pagina's. Verschenen februari 2004. Meer info over de Groente- en fruit Encyclopedie

- Plantenziekten: bescherming van cultuurgewassen en openbaar groen, door A. Hallemans. (6de uitgave - 1993)

- Publicaties en verslagen van dé Notenspecialist:
WESTHOF KWEKERIJ, te NL-4444 SM 's-Heer Abtskerke (Nederland)
Nederland (Tel.: 0113-561219 Fax 0113- 563399). Hier kan men een uitgebreid sortiment aan geënte rassen okkernoten (walnoten) bekomen.
Homepage kwekerij (gewone walnoten) Westhof


Fruit and Vegetable Book: Fruits and Vegetables Encyclopedia

Authors: Luc & Guy Did The Children

The content of the fruit and vegetable plants encyclopedia book does not match that of the website (Fruit ABC),
This special garden book is complete and in its details. Via an index register and its data quickly to find!
Rear is an extensive mailing list where additional information (addresses) on seeds and planting is to obtain.

A standard manuals with extensive cultivation of all known and specific fruit and vegetables, and tasty for successful revenue from small and large gardens. This book has 408 pages and is richly illustrated. The first edition was published in 2004, the second in 2007, the third in January 2009 and the fourth revised edition appeared in 2011 (March).

Practical information on the basics of growing in the soil, greenhouse / conservatory and in pots.

Of each fruit and vegetable cultivation is the step by step detail, from sowing or planting through care aspects (fertilization, crop protection, pruning, etc.) until the harvest.

Many hundreds of color photos and drawings of all crops, the tools, auxiliary materials and work for a number of things at a glance to clear.

Environmental approach by creating and maintaining healthy growth conditions and by selection of disease-tolerant crops.

Reports and lists pollination races make the right choice from the very extensive range - a richness and variety that is much larger than fruit and vegetable shops and supermarkets suggest.

Besides fruits and vegetables are also taking care of the most important herbs treated.

Also in this gardening book: addresses of specialist suppliers of vegetable and fruit plants, plus listings of useful websites.
The Fruit Encyclopedia (3rd edition, 2009) is available again!

Last summer 2008, the last copies of the Fruit & Vegetables Encyclopedia (2nd edition) sold. This unique garden encyclopedia has become a standard for edible vegetable and fruit garden.

A striking new feature is the "Growing Planner" where you get a clear overview of what you sow, plant and harvest a month.

Also new is a comprehensive table of distances for ideal planting fruits and an additional chapter on kiwibes (Actinidia arguta).

Through the websites and info Houtwal Vegetables - Fruit ABC is an online support information. Readers can find additional information, questions, comments, and contacts with other gardeners.

The Fruit Encyclopedia (4th revised edition, March 2011) is available again!

Last winter 2010-2011, the last copies of the Fruit & Vegetables Encyclopedia (3rd edition) sold. This unique garden encyclopedia is a standard for edible vegetable and fruit garden!

For most fruit and vegetables were adjusted catalogs.

The environment friendly gardening is even more central than in previous versions. Preventing diseases and pests through an appropriate choice of varieties and suitable cultivation measures.

Through the websites and newsletters and Vegetables Houtwal Info - Fruit ABC is an online support information. Readers can find additional information, questions, comments, and contacts with other gardeners.

Fruit trees in the orchard. Planting of stone fruit.

Plants, pollination and variety selection table in plum trees.
Prunus domestica
Recommended varieties and plum pollination.

1.Pruimenteelt suits lovers (Prunus domestica)
Prunus is an old Latin name of plants with reference to the cherries and plums, plum tree. All stone fruits nominate genus Prunus.The species designation means domestica domestic, indigenous, (cultivated) (Latin domus = house)Read more about the origin and explanation of scientific names of plants, "ABC's of Latin plant. The use of botanical names"
A large number of plum varieties are well suited for fans, because they are usually less susceptible to a fungus. Sprays are usually unnecessary. In general, most plum varieties less susceptible than apples.2.Kruisbestuiving usually needed at boot plumImportant for the production of the prune pollination. In general, they flower early. For good fruit set should usually equal 2 * flowering varieties are planted.Poor production is usually due to: poor pollination, too cold (freezing) or wet during flowering. Late flowering and self-pollinating usually give less turn years.
Cross-pollination usually produces thicker and more fruit.
A good pollinator must provide sufficient pollen (annually) and must occur simultaneously with the other pruimenras flourish. Hot and dry weather are ideal for good pollination. Late-flowering plum varieties are generally less susceptible to spring frost.
Some good self pollinators * (S) which are sometimes susceptible "Reine Cl. the Bavay ',' Harvest Plum ',' Felsina ',' Sainte Catherine '(RGF), Belle de Louvain, River Early Prolific, Altesse Simple, Monarch, Czar, Mirabelle de Metz, Prune the Prince (RGF), Geisenheimer Top, Early Transparent Gage, Reine Claude Crottee (R.Cl. Doree, R.Cl. Verte Crottee type), Anna Späth, Ontario, Marjories Seedling, Voyageur, Topper, Topking, Warwickshire Drooper, Red Mirabel, Altesse Double de Liège, Wignon ( RGF), Giant Prune, Barley Ruth Etter, Early Laxton, Victoria (syn. Reine Victoria), Sanctus Hubertus, Altesse Simple, Buhler Frühzwetsche, Bluefre and Opal.In hot weather during flowering is more likely to have a good self-pollination and fruit set.3.Snoeien of plum trees should not be in winter!Pruning plum trees and other stone fruits should only be done from mid April to late September. When pruning during the winter, there is risk of dying! (Especially the cv. 'Queen Victoria' is very susceptible to the disease galena) See also "Fruit ABC pruning calendar"4.Schimmelziekten and diseases in plum boot.
Exceptionally, some plum varieties are susceptible to these fungal diseases: bacterial cancer, leaf spot, Shothole, witches' broom disease, hunger plums disease, galena fungus moniliaschimmel (fruit rot / branch and blossom death), rust fungus and fruit rot.Exceptional are the following pests: bladgalmijt, aphids, dopluizen, wood beetles, pruimenmot, plum sawfly, winter moth (caterpillars), bark borers, spider mites and root nematodes.Exceptionally there may be some deficiency diseases (chlorosis) occur: manganese and iron deficiency. Too high pH of the soil of this is usually the cause.
The RGF-plum varieties (so-called "old varieties of Gembloux") are generally well tolerant / resistant to disease and are almost in every region for sale. ("Prune the Prince," "Sainte Catherine" and "Wignon ')5.Geringe plum harvest t.g.v. spring frostsHow to spring frost damage to blossoms to prevent or limit?
There is less damage from spring frosts if the ground under the plum trees weed free, moist and is closed. Grass under the trees during flowering should be cut as short as possible.During flowering, the tree mirror is not covered with grass, manure or compost.

6.Other sight hurt plums acc. picking time:  


Friday, December 9, 2011

Fruit trees: Apple trees plants (Malus domestica).

Meaning scientific name:The genus name comes from Malus 'malum' and this is the Latin word for apple, fruit tree.The species designation means domestica domestic, indigenous, (cultivated) (Latin domus = house).
The apple tree is native to Europe.Tolerant fungus / disease tolerant apple varieties (Malus domestica):

Some apple varieties are well suited for fans, because they are less susceptible to fungal diseases such as scabies and some mildew. Sprays are usually unnecessary.
Current apple varieties found in the fruit shop can buy are usually not / less suitable for lovers, because of their large disease susceptibility. (Eg 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith', ..) The most important fungal diseases are scab, powdery mildew (white rot) and canker.
Scab-tolerant varieties are sometimes susceptible to mildew. Varieties scab tolerant and less or very little susceptible to mildew, "Nela" "Rayka ',' Rubinola ',' Topaz ',' Rebella ',' Reka ', (' Reglindis '),' Relinda ',' Cidor" , 'Juliane', 'Golden Resistant', 'Hibernal', ('Such non Peas Good'), 'Remo', 'Red star apple', 'Discovery'.
A disadvantage of these varieties is that they are harder to find. Some breeds are very old, others are very new and may not freely be increased.
The RGF varieties (so-called "old apple varieties Gembloux") are generally well tolerant / resistant to disease and are almost in every region for sale.
Pollination of apple trees (Malus domestica):Cross-pollination.

Most apple varieties are cross-pollination * is required.
One must then at least two apple varieties and plant both varieties have a good quality pollen.
Where a race has bad pollen, it must be a third race (with good pollen drift) in plants.

Cross-pollination usually produces thicker and more fruit.
Characteristics of a good pollinator.

A good pollinator must provide sufficient pollen (annually) and must occur simultaneously with the other race flourish.
Hot and dry weather are ideal for good pollination.
Late-flowering varieties are generally less susceptible to spring frost.
Some self pollinators (self-pollinating)

Some good self-apple varieties * (S) that sometimes (very) sensitive disease:
Malus domestica 'Benoni', 'Bloemeezoet', 'Some Bellefleur "(Brabant)," Groninger Kroon', ('James Grieve'),
"Mantet", "lame Küchenapfel '(syn.' Mank's Codlin '),' Odin ',' Summerred ',' Vista Bella ',' Tzigane 'and' Sweet Crown.
In hot weather during flowering is more likely to have a good self-pollination.

Overview scab tolerant apple varieties acc. harvesting and use period:


- For more information and cultivation rasoverzichten: see fruit book "Fruit & Vegetables Encyclopedia"

- Data from M. Ing near, in June 1998. (Unité de-phytopatologie Gembloux), Varieties fruit crops 1992 (NFO), Apple Types (Petzold), Pomologia ...
- "Fruit and Vegetable Encyclopedia", authors Luc did and Guy De Kinder.
Publishing Green Boekerij (Kosmos, Utrecht).