Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Drawing simple pruning apple (low strain)


1.Stam (At low strain 40-70 cm long)
2.gesteltakken, carrying branches (branches or fruit), 3.Vruchthout,

6.Steil growing branches,
7.Horizontaal growing fruit wood to the leaders,
8.Vruchthout overlooks from fishbone,
9.Rugtwijgen (on top of the branches),
10.Buikhout (bottom of the branches),

11.Snoeien with foot,

12.Snoeien on foot (= directed stub) (New fruiting desired),

13.Horizontaal bending fruit twigs (concrete block),

14.Terugsnoeien too long branch,

15.Terugsnoeien hanging fruit wood,

16.Opslag of the rootstock,

E: graft (10-20 cm above the ground surface)
O.: rootstock
H: central leader

Prune away:
Storage of wild rootstock

- Competitors of extension events

- Too steep implanted or branches.

- Too long fructification pruning back to lower standing against a short twig.

- Depending fruiting wood (wood abdomen)

- Twigs and branches at the top of the branches grow (Rughout)

- Intersecting and abrasive branches

- Leaves affected by canker

- Branches of less than 50 cm are on the trunk or central leader.

- A branch at the top of the tree that is thicker than a branch below. (-> Pruning "on foot")

- Pursue a pyramidal tree shape after which the lower branches enough light.

- A low pedigree too high, it can be pruned to a vruchttak lower state. (For example, a tree of 3 meters can be cut back to a side branch that 2 m above the ground)

NOT insnoeien:

- Extension of Nissen (growing) laterals

- Strong year old twigs to frame or fruiting branches grow.

Thinning pruning:

- Numerous short twigs of 2-20 cm long (Part preserve -> ideal fruiting wood that will bear fruit)


- Twigs of 20-40 cm to the side of the branches which grow vertically.

- Gestel Leaves and fruit tree that does not grow horizontally. (Do this bend especially in hot weather: from April to August). Before you can bend concrete blocks or rope.

Up binding:

- A weak growing gesteltak bottom of the tree that is deeper than a horizontal position

Pruning fruit trees. Additional boom parts i.v.m. pruning in apple and pear:


1. Rootstock
2. Graft / entknobbel (Vvorm a horse knee)
3. Between Tribe (Such a tree is grafted twice)
4. Storage, storage of wild rootstock
5. Central leader
6. Context or frame (lower laterals + central leader)
7. Herringbone (View of fruiting wood to gesteltak)
8. Fruit Wood (Short branches with flower buds)
9. Head (upper part of a tree)
10. Pants (between central leader and gesteltak, where little sunlight coming)
11. Trace (very short fruiting wood of 1-5 cm)
12. Stekeltwijgje (Short fruiting wood of 6-9 cm long)
13. Ordinary vruchttwijg (brendil) 10-20 (30) cm
14. Greedy twig: 60 cm length (usually useless)
15. Verlengenis
16. Yoke or vergaffeling (Gesteltak seems to split)
17. Competitor (usually to remove)
18. Worn wood (Back Pruning or shortening)
19. Kattenrug (Improper bent twig)
20. Rugtwijg (usually to remove)
21. Buiktwijg / belly wood (usually to remove)
22. Flower bud / bloembot (Remarkably thick buds from which flowers and leaves. Sitting usually on short twigs) 23. Leaf Button (Narrow pointed buds with leaves)
24. Stomp (Remains after a road saws gesteltak or thick fruit wood top. This shall steeply growing rugtwijgen) 25. Targeted stub (Is narrow top and wide bottom. Below arise some weak fruit twigs)
26. Strain (At low strain about 50 cm long)
27. Gesteltak (Must be at low strain apples grow almost horizontally. Is filled with fruit wood herringbone shape.)
28. End Button (This cut away the growth stimulated)
29. Sleeping eye (Lower, almost invisible leaf buds on a twig)

Terminology / jargon for the pruning of fruit trees:

Single tree parts and pruning concepts in pome and stone fruit (pome fruit = apple, pear, quince, stone fruit = plum, peach, apricot)

Rootstock, fruit tree rootstock
This is the part below the graft fruit trees sits.

Storage / storage or wild carrot (basal shoots)
The fruit tree rootstock can shoots / twigs are below the graft union. This game can store the rootstock base or from the roots arise.

Graft, entknobbel (E.)
This is the place where the entras and the rootstock grow together, after finishing (grafting / budding).

Stem, stem length (1)
This is the part of the (fruit) tree from the ground to the implantation of the first / lower draagtak. The stem length can vary widely and depends primarily on the tree. The average stem length is 50 cm (low strain) or 130 cm (half standard) or 180 cm (tall).

Central leader / intermediate branch (H.)
This is the central or branch (vertical) axis of the fruit tree. There is a clear preference to a central leader with gradient. (Ie a gradual decrease in diameter, according to the height of the tree.)

Cup of fruit tree
The "head" is the upper part of the fruit tree. Proper management of the boomkop requires much insight and is important in kopgroeiers (Malus 'Golden Delicious', Pyrus 'Beurre Hardy', 'Doyenne du Comice'). A double header is undesirable and can arise if a competitor long tolerate.

Leaves frame (frame carrying branches or branches) (2)
These are lower, heavy branches (3-5) permanently attached to the central leader / trunk standing. They are thinner than the central leader. In close plant systems, they are very limited in number and length. In extremely dense plantings (cords) are even omitted.

Verlengenis / juices tractor / eindtwijg (4)
This sprig is on the end of a frame or central leader. For small (fruit) tree forms these two concepts (tractor juices and juice-waster) as synonyms. Many people nowadays prefer to speak of verlengenis if the last twig on the end mean.

Competitor (s) (5)
Strong, upright shoots (branches), which just below the verlengenis grow. These bearing implanted twig is almost as long, or longer if the verlengenis (The verlengenis is always higher implanted). If one competitor let alone, he verlengenis the crowd.

Fruit Wood (3)
The fruiting wood bears fruit and is replaced or not, depending on the pruning system. The age (age) depends on the fruit and the fruit variety, eg this year fruiting in Vitis, Actinidia and Rubus. Annual fruiting wood in Prunus cerasus (cherry trees / sour cherries), Malus 'Golden Delicious', Jonagold, Jonathan. Biennial fruiting wood in most apple and pear varieties (Malus and Pyrus).

Herringbone (8)
The gesteltak should be well branched (sprung) are. If the herringbone missing, one speaks of a different branch or canceration bare branch or takverkaling.

Pruning "by foot" (11)
This means everything pruning, as smooth as possible. At high cancer-infection pressure (apple), this is undesirable.

Pruning "on foot" (12)
The remaining stump has a length of 2 to 5 cm. The eyes are not clearly visible. On the stump pruning takkraag leave.

Worn fruiting wood (druiphout) (15)
This fruit have hung. It is recognizable by its fruit fairs in apple and pear trees. Worn wood sinks usually has a weaker or no growth usually weak and sometimes mixed buds (buds + buds) in a heavy costume. This is called binge drinkers. If worn twigs really downwards speaks of druiphout.

Fruit Fair, fruit gland
This is a bulge where a pip fruit (apple / pear) has espoused. The number of fruit fairs gives an idea of ​​the previous pregnancy. From a fruit fair may develop a publicly-twig.

Rughout, rugtwijgen (9)
These unwanted branches / shoots develop on the top of the fruit branches. They come mainly from curved branches (twigs) or large pruning wounds. They are strong and vertical growing twigs.

Vergaffeling, fork
If a twig or gesteltak branching and neither dominates. So they are both equally long and thick. Heavily on one side wood gesteltak almost / as thick as the gesteltak, an vergaffeling called.



Pruning fruit trees in the garden: winter pruning of fruit trees (apple)

Annually by your apple and pear trees to cut you a good quality of fruit annually. The health of the tree and fruit is better and the service life is longer. To correct pruning fruit trees is important for most parts to be appointed. Explanation of pruning is easier to understand and apply. Pruning always away: wild storing the rootstock, too low of branches, belly wood, vertical growing rughout and competitors. The stem and usually single central leader should grow up. Too far to the growing fruiting laterals or branches fruit is usually shortened to short twigs. Leaf Buds are pointed and narrow. Flower buds are thick (round) and occur mainly on short fruiting (Twigs from 1 to 20 cm long).

Pruning of fruit trees: Pruning a simple (low strain) apple (Malus domestica)

  1.Onderdelen of an apple tree / fruit tree

A normal fruit tree (spindle shape) consists of several major components:
Rootstock, graft, trunk (1), central leader (H.), branches or laterals (2) and fruiting (3)

NOTE: The used simple numbers (1) (2), etc. refer to the numbers as used in corresponding drawing.

See below for a detailed description of these terms. Table: "Some parts tree and pruning concepts in pome and stone fruit"

At the end of the stem and / or central leader and the leaders is a strong year twig: the verlengenis (4). In the immediate vicinity we usually have a strong twig we call competitor. (5). Usually, the competitor may be pruned either he will verlengenis replaced.

What we see clearly?

- Trunk (central leader) and laterals are firm;

- The fruiting wood is weak.

2.Waarom apple trees and other fruit trees pruning? (Purpose?)

The light should all parts of the fruit tree can reach
     We thus obtain annual benefits of a good quality and quantity.
     An open pruned tree is easier to pick.
     The health of the apple tree is better and the service life is longer.

3.When prune apple trees?

Young apple trees (under 4 years), it is best in the spring (March / April) pruning. Early pruning (December or January) may arise frost. See also "Fruit pruning calendar"
     Mature apple trees can be pruned as soon as the blade dropped. This is usually from December to March. Do not prune while daytime freezing. (Frost damage is possible).
     Weak growers (with a lot of mixed buttons) can be the first pruning (December or January). Strong growers (with few mixed buds), one can last pruning (March). Early fruit trees pruning promotes growth. Let pruning (April / May) inhibits the growth.
     Pruning preferably in dry weather. Pruning Wounds that long stay wet are very susceptible to infection by canker.
     Prune preferably as little or not freezing. If it is too hard freezes, the wound tissue does not grow well....

4. The pruning of a spindle shape can be reduced to the following advice:
A spindle shape is an apple / pear tree that was piramidaalvormig. (Tree Form).
     The central leader / intermediate branch remains simple: competitor / competitors prune (5).
     The main branches are apple trees (Malus domestica) previously implanted just because we get light to the central leader / trunk.
     Central leader and laterals (fruit branches) periodically with fruit wood lined.
     Pruning always laying on a knob outwardly directed, so that a more open growth occurs.

We prune the apple tree path:

The competitor (s) of the extension recesses (5). These are removed because they have an open crown stand in the way.
     - Too steep placed branches (6), intersecting, broken or abrasive branches.
     - Vergaffelingen (heavy branches of a gesteltak)
     - Death and diseased wood and inward growing branches.
     - Remove as many rugtwijgen and belly wood. Wood Fruit that grows sideways, gives the best results.

         Pruning of fruit wood:

The fruiting wood is as horizontal as possible to the main branches (7) and in top view the appearance of a fishbone (8).

     Prune away: the fruiting wood that is too strong, on top of the main branches {rughout} (9) because it is much light away, the fruiting wood on the bottom of the main branches {belly wood} (1O) because it is too little light receiving.

     - The pruning of a branch or twig can happen "by foot" (11) as the gesteltak sufficiently covered with fruit wood or "on foot" (= targeted stub) (12) if we new, weak fruiting wishes at the point of pruning.
     - A special case: many strong twigs, we will remove some twigs, while the rest are deflected into the horizontal position (13).
     - Too long (frame) branch pruning best we return to a lower standing branch with the desired direction (14)
     - Worn, drooping fruit wood we must rejuvenate the pruning to a well placed twig, at the bend (l5)
     - It is obvious that we are all sick, dead or injured fruiting wood removal. (For example, the wood is affected by canker.)