Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Pruning fruit trees in the garden: winter pruning of fruit trees (apple)

Annually by your apple and pear trees to cut you a good quality of fruit annually. The health of the tree and fruit is better and the service life is longer. To correct pruning fruit trees is important for most parts to be appointed. Explanation of pruning is easier to understand and apply. Pruning always away: wild storing the rootstock, too low of branches, belly wood, vertical growing rughout and competitors. The stem and usually single central leader should grow up. Too far to the growing fruiting laterals or branches fruit is usually shortened to short twigs. Leaf Buds are pointed and narrow. Flower buds are thick (round) and occur mainly on short fruiting (Twigs from 1 to 20 cm long).

Pruning of fruit trees: Pruning a simple (low strain) apple (Malus domestica)

  1.Onderdelen of an apple tree / fruit tree

A normal fruit tree (spindle shape) consists of several major components:
Rootstock, graft, trunk (1), central leader (H.), branches or laterals (2) and fruiting (3)

NOTE: The used simple numbers (1) (2), etc. refer to the numbers as used in corresponding drawing.

See below for a detailed description of these terms. Table: "Some parts tree and pruning concepts in pome and stone fruit"

At the end of the stem and / or central leader and the leaders is a strong year twig: the verlengenis (4). In the immediate vicinity we usually have a strong twig we call competitor. (5). Usually, the competitor may be pruned either he will verlengenis replaced.

What we see clearly?

- Trunk (central leader) and laterals are firm;

- The fruiting wood is weak.

2.Waarom apple trees and other fruit trees pruning? (Purpose?)

The light should all parts of the fruit tree can reach
     We thus obtain annual benefits of a good quality and quantity.
     An open pruned tree is easier to pick.
     The health of the apple tree is better and the service life is longer.

3.When prune apple trees?

Young apple trees (under 4 years), it is best in the spring (March / April) pruning. Early pruning (December or January) may arise frost. See also "Fruit pruning calendar"
     Mature apple trees can be pruned as soon as the blade dropped. This is usually from December to March. Do not prune while daytime freezing. (Frost damage is possible).
     Weak growers (with a lot of mixed buttons) can be the first pruning (December or January). Strong growers (with few mixed buds), one can last pruning (March). Early fruit trees pruning promotes growth. Let pruning (April / May) inhibits the growth.
     Pruning preferably in dry weather. Pruning Wounds that long stay wet are very susceptible to infection by canker.
     Prune preferably as little or not freezing. If it is too hard freezes, the wound tissue does not grow well....

4. The pruning of a spindle shape can be reduced to the following advice:
A spindle shape is an apple / pear tree that was piramidaalvormig. (Tree Form).
     The central leader / intermediate branch remains simple: competitor / competitors prune (5).
     The main branches are apple trees (Malus domestica) previously implanted just because we get light to the central leader / trunk.
     Central leader and laterals (fruit branches) periodically with fruit wood lined.
     Pruning always laying on a knob outwardly directed, so that a more open growth occurs.

We prune the apple tree path:

The competitor (s) of the extension recesses (5). These are removed because they have an open crown stand in the way.
     - Too steep placed branches (6), intersecting, broken or abrasive branches.
     - Vergaffelingen (heavy branches of a gesteltak)
     - Death and diseased wood and inward growing branches.
     - Remove as many rugtwijgen and belly wood. Wood Fruit that grows sideways, gives the best results.

         Pruning of fruit wood:

The fruiting wood is as horizontal as possible to the main branches (7) and in top view the appearance of a fishbone (8).

     Prune away: the fruiting wood that is too strong, on top of the main branches {rughout} (9) because it is much light away, the fruiting wood on the bottom of the main branches {belly wood} (1O) because it is too little light receiving.

     - The pruning of a branch or twig can happen "by foot" (11) as the gesteltak sufficiently covered with fruit wood or "on foot" (= targeted stub) (12) if we new, weak fruiting wishes at the point of pruning.
     - A special case: many strong twigs, we will remove some twigs, while the rest are deflected into the horizontal position (13).
     - Too long (frame) branch pruning best we return to a lower standing branch with the desired direction (14)
     - Worn, drooping fruit wood we must rejuvenate the pruning to a well placed twig, at the bend (l5)
     - It is obvious that we are all sick, dead or injured fruiting wood removal. (For example, the wood is affected by canker.)


No comments:

Post a Comment